AD 1  AERODROMES/HELIPORTS - INTRODUCTION

AD 1.1  Aerodrome/Heliport Availability and Conditions of Use

1   CIVIL

1.1   General Conditions

Commercial flights are not permitted to take off from or land at any aerodrome/heliport not listed in this AIP, except in cases of emergency or when special permission has been obtained from the CAA. Such aerodromes/heliports are available only for private flights and are subject to permission for use by the owner.

In Luxembourg, unless authorised by the CAA, helicopters are not permitted to land or take-off outside approved airports and heliports. Hospital heliports may only be used by helicopters performing medical flights.

The SARPS of ICAO Annex 14 are applied.

1.2   Civil Use of Military Air Bases
1.2.1   General

Landing of civil aircraft on military aerodromes, with exception of EBMB, is forbidden without the prior permission of the Belgian Air Component. This rule does not apply to aircraft in emergency.

Pilots in emergency may inquire on the emergency frequency (121.500 MHZ or 243.000 MHZ) or via a relevant ATS unit (Semmerzake ATCC or a military APP unit) whether any ATS or other facilities are available at a military aerodrome and what kind of assistance can be given. In any case, the landing remains the full responsibility of the pilot.

At closed military aerodromes, runways are normally vacated and available. Nevertheless, it may occur that minor maintenance works on the runways are performed during these periods, constituting an additional danger for aircraft in emergency.

1.2.2   PAR Training

Civil pilots are allowed to perform PAR training at EBBE, EBFS, EBBL and EBFN under following conditions:

  • prior permission shall be obtained by telephone from the local ATC unit before each flight. If the expected traffic situation is too heavy, flights may be restricted or refused;
  • in VMC only;
  • landing and touch-and-go are prohibited. Pilots shall not descend below decision altitude (DA).
1.2.3   Concessions to Civil Clubs

A concession has been given to civil clubs by the Belgian Air Component to use following military aerodromes and sites outside military operations: EBBX, EBCV, EBDT, EBFN, EBFS, EBLE, EBTN, EBUL, EBWE and EBZR (see AD 2).

During these periods, the use of the airfields is strictly subject to prior permission from the concession holder. At other times, approval from the Belgian Air Component remains compulsory.

Note: The activation of military reserve aerodromes to support exercises will be announced by NOTAM at least 2 working days in advance.

1.3   Low Visibility Procedures

An aircraft operator that wishes to perform low visibility procedures (e.g. take-off with RVR below 400 M, CAT II/III landing) on Belgian aerodromes shall be holder of an adequate authorisation, granted by his National Aviation Authority.

The holder of such an authorisation may perform low visibility operations on Belgian aerodromes, in accordance with the limitation of his authorisation and taking into account the status of the concerned runway, together with any permanent or temporary limitation associated with the runway. In particular:

  • no low visibility operation may be performed while minima are below those published in the AIP;
  • any operator wishing to benefit from the above possibility must be able to show the relevant authorisation granted by his National Aviation Authority to the Airport Authority concerned. It is recommended to send a copy of this authorisation in advance directly to the Airport Authority (this will not be done by the Belgian CAA).
1.4   Other Information
1.4.1   Operations at Aerodromes where the Meteorological Conditions are Below the Aerodrome Minima
1.4.1.1   VFR Flights

Take-off and landing may be prohibited for reason of low ceiling and/or bad visibility.

1.4.1.2   IFR Flights

A controlled aerodrome will not be closed to IFR traffic for reason of low ceiling and/or bad visibility.

A pilot on IFR flight plan shall not take off when the reported RVR or visibility, as appropriate, is below the minimum value published in the AIP. ATC will issue the official weather report (see note 1 below). Neither taxi instructions nor take-off clearance will be issued. Following phraseology will be used: "RVR or visibility (as appropriate) ... meters. This is below published minima for take-off on runway ... (runway designation). ... (call sign) taxi instructions and take-off clearance not issued".

ATC will ensure that any information essential for the pilot's decision to continue or discontinue an approach is brought to his attention without delay, such as:

  • application of special safeguards and procedures, when necessary;
  • any known unserviceability of aids or facilities;
  • official weather report including any significant changes transmitted to each aircraft;
  • RVR information including any significant changes transmitted to each aircraft.

When on an aerodrome in Belgium the reported RVR and/or visibility, as appropriate, are below the published aerodrome minima, ATC will inform the pilot accordingly and request him to state his intentions using the following phraseology: “Reported RVR and/or visibility is .... This is below published minima. Advise your intentions".

Unless a holding for weather improvement or a diversion is requested or holding for implementation of special safeguards and procedures is imposed, ATC will issue approach instructions and landing clearance and, if necessary, will assist the pilot during his manoeuvre.

Note 1: Reports of routine and special observations including RVR reading and/or visibility, as appropriate, made at aerodromes by an official weather officer (or by the airport authority, if no such officer is available), constitute the official weather report.

Note 2: The clearance issued does not relieve a pilot of any responsibility in case of violation of applicable rules and regulations.

Note 3: A pilot on an instrument approach procedure shall not descend below his DH / MDH, if he has not established the required visual reference to continue the approach-to-land.

Note 4: Possible adverse consequences for aircraft and its occupants as well as for persons and property on the surface, resulting from a landing attempted and made under conditions below the published minima, can not be ascribed to ATC assistance. ATC clearances are solely based on known traffic conditions.

Note 5: A pilot in emergency will be allowed to land regardless the conditions of the aerodrome and aerodrome facilities.

2   MILITARY

2.1   COMOPSAIR Black Code and Weather Colour State Code
2.1.1   COMOPSAIR Black Code

'Black' means that a runway or an aerodrome is not usable for other reasons than cloud and/or visibility. In particular circumstances (ice or snow) the runway might be closed for some type of aircraft only (i.e. jet aircraft) and remains open for other type (i.e. helicopter).

When a black code is applicable to a runway it is the SOF responsibility to determine if it is limiting or not the operations according aircraft type. All concerned parties shall be informed of all specifications associated with the black code by phone (i.e. black 2 for RWY 26R, black 2 for F16,...).

The word 'Black' will always be given before the weather colour state code.

CodeConditionApplicability
1Runway obstructed, covered with water or blockedRWY only
2Runway covered with snow, slush or iceRWY only
3Not all flight safety services are available.Aerodrome
4The Ground/Air communications are insufficient to warrant flight safety.Aerodrome
5Runway lighting unserviceable by nightRWY only
2.1.2   COMOPSAIR Weather Colour State Code

The COMOPSAIR weather colour state code is a guide for pilots and controllers as to the existing weather conditions. ATC will not refuse an approach clearance for the sole reason that the weather report indicates conditions below the published procedure minima.

The colour state in force is that which indicates the worst condition of either cloud base or visibility.

Colour state & abbreviationLowest cloud base (at least 3/8 coverage) equal to or more than
(FT)
Surface visibility equal to or more than
(M)
Blue - BLU2 5008 000
White - WHT1 5005 000
Green - GRN7003 700
Yellow - YLO3001 600
Amber - AMB200800
Red - REDLess than AMB
Phraseology concerning the cloud coverage of the sky
FEW1/8 to 2/8
SCATTERED3/8 to 4/8
BROKEN5/8 to 7/8
OVERCAST8/8
2.2   Legends for Fuel, Oil, De-icing Agents, Oxygen and Starting Units
Fuel, Oil and De-icing Agents
NATO codeInter service designation equivalentNomenclature of supply article
F-1280/87 AVGASGasoline, aviation grade 80/87
F-18100/130 AVGASGasoline, aviation grade 100/130
F-22115/145 AVGASGasoline, aviation grade 115/145
F-34JP-8Turbine fuel, aviation type “KEROSINE 50"
F-40JP-4Turbine fuel, aviation grade (wide cut gasoline type with fuel system icing inhibitor)
O-113OM 107Lubricating oil, aircraft piston engine, grade D 1065
O-125OMD 250Lubricating oil, aircraft piston engine, grade D 1080, dispersant
O-128OMD 370Reciprocating engine oil, grade D 1120, dispersant
O-133OM 10Lubricating oil, aircraft turbine engine, petroleum grade 1010
O-135OM 11Lubricating oil, aircraft turbine engine, petroleum
O-136OEP 71Lubricating oil, aircraft turbine engine, petroleum, extreme pressure
O-138OM 71Lubricating oil, aircraft turbine engine, petroleum grade 1057
O-147OX 14Lubricating oil, instrument
O-148OX 9Lubricating oil, aircraft turbine engine, synthetic
O-149OX 38Lubricating oil, aircraft turbine engine, synthetic
O-155OEP 70Lubricating oil, extreme pressure
O-156OX 27Lubricating oil, aircraft turbine engine, synthetic
H-515OM-15Hydraulic fluid, petroleum
S-737AL 11Isopropyl alcohol
S-738AL 8Ethyl alcohol
S-742AL 16De-icing defroster fluid
S-745AL 7Defroster fluid
Oxygen
Oxygen codeNomenclature of supply article
LPOXLow pressure oxygen servicing
HPOXHigh pressure oxygen servicing
LHOXLow and high pressure oxygen servicing
LOXLiquid oxygen servicing
OXRBOxygen replacement bottles
Aircraft Starting Units
Aircraft starting unit codeNomenclature of supply article
Electrical
DSA 30037,5 KVA, 120/208 V, 3 phase, 400 Hz;
28 V DC, 1 phase, zero Hz
G 1010 KVA, 28 V DC, 357 A, 1 phase, zero Hz
GENERATOR SET HOUCHIN NR 15 KVA, 115/200 V, 3 phase, 400 Hz;
5 KVA, 28,5 V DC
GENERATOR SET HOUCHIN NR 240 KVA, 115/200 V, 3 phase, 400 Hz;
40 KVA, 28 V DC
Air
A 1Low pressure air starter, 40 PSIG, 120 LBS/MIN (Atlas Copco)
Turbo compressor, 37 PSIG, 118 LBS/MIN (Boeing)
TCGTrailer Compressed Gas equipped with 9 bottles 07101/10 containing a water capacity of 68 litres.
Maximum compression: 3500 PSI
2.3   Use of Military Aerodromes Outside Normal Operating Hours

When a military aerodrome is closed, the MDC and Semmerzake ATCC consider the aerodrome state as normal (i.e. runways are vacated and available, except restrictions published by NOTAM or communicated by the Base Commander). Nevertheless, it may occur that minor maintenance works are performed on the runways during this period, which may constitute an additional danger for aircraft in emergency.

A controller may at times be present at the control towers of EBFS, EBBL or EBFN for purpose of QRA. A listening watch on the published radio frequencies is normally not maintained.

  • When a controller is present and on request of MDC or Semmerzake ATCC, the runway and approach lighting may be available with a short delay.
  • Pilots in emergency may land on any of these aerodromes on their own responsibility.
  • To obtain such facilities, pilots in emergency may request via the emergency frequency (121.500 MHZ and 243.000 MHZ) some or all aerodrome lighting to be switched on. When an aircraft is in emergency, Semmerzake ATCC or MDC is entitled to order lighting to be on.
2.4   Police Flights

Police flights are allowed to use military aerodromes during operational hours. Prior coordination with the local W OPS is required. If coordination hasn’t been done prior the flight, the pilot-in-command will coordinate on the appropriate frequency with the local ATS unit.

Police flights are allowed to use military aerodromes outside operational hours. Authorisation shall be obtained in advance from the local aerodrome authority via the W OPS.

2.5   Heliports and Helicopter Landing Sites
2.5.1   General

The use of military helicopter landing sites by foreign helicopters, apart from those situated on an aerodrome and in the Kwartier Koningin Elisabeth / Quartier Reine Elisabeth, is subject to prior approval of COMOPSAIR, Airspace Control Ops (see GEN 1.1).

Unless stated otherwise, military helicopter landing sites are ‘limited use VFR’.

The hospital helistrips (see AD 1.3, § 2) are strictly reserved for AIR AMBULANCE or HEMS flights.

In any case, when a flight is foreseen on one of the helistrips, a clearance shall be obtained by telephone from the responsible authority before take-off.

Further information can be obtained from MDC Coordination (See GEN 3.3, § 6.4).

2.5.2   Deviations from NATO Standards

Military helicopter landing sites categorized ‘limited use VFR’ are protected against obstacles according national criteria which are less stringent than those prescribed in the STANAG.

2.5.3   Helicopter landing sites on military AD

In conformance with the STANAG, helicopter landing sites could be IFR, VFR or ‘limited use VFR’. Unless stated otherwise, helicopter landing sites on military AD are ‘limited use VFR’. See the AD 2.16 of the appropriate AD.

The size (L) of the HEL should be commensurate with the following helicopter landing site dimensions (1.5 L = 30 M).

  • A hard and dust free landing surface that has dimensions of at least 30 x 30 M.
  • A 15 M wide surface free of obstructions foreseen on all sides of the landing area.
2.5.4   Military helicopter landing sites not published in the AIP

Information about military helicopter landing sites not published in the AIP can be obtained from COMOPSAIR, Airspace Control Ops (see GEN 1.1).