ENR 1.14  Air Traffic Incidents

1   DEFINITIONS

1.1   Air Traffic Occurrence

The term air traffic occurrence is used for accidents and all categories of incidents as well as for defects or mal-functioning of an aircraft, its equipment and any element of the Air Navigation System which is used or intended to be used for the purpose or in connection with the operation of an aircraft or with the provision of an ATM service or navigational aid to an aircraft.

1.2   Accident

An occurrence associated with the operation of an aircraft which takes place between the time any person boards the aircraft with the intention of flight until such time as all such persons have disembarked, in which:

  1. A person is fatally or seriously injured as a result of:
    • being in the aircraft, or
    • direct contact with any part of the aircraft, including parts which have become detached from the aircraft, or
    • direct exposure to jet blast, except when the injuries are from natural causes, self-inflicted or inflicted by other persons, or when the injuries are to stowaways hiding outside the areas normally available to the passengers and crew; or
  2. The aircraft sustains damage or structural failure which adversely affect the structural strength, performance or flight characteristics of the aircraft, and would normally require major repair or replacement of the affected component except for engine failure or damage, when the damage is limited to the engine, its cowling’s or accessories; or for damages limited to propellers, wing tips, antennas, tires, brakes, fairings, small dents or puncture holes in the aircraft skin; or
  3. The aircraft is missing or is completely inaccessible.

Note1: For statistical uniformity only, an injury resulting in death within thirty days of the date of the accident is classified as a fatal injury by ICAO.

Note2: An aircraft is considered to be missing when the official search has been terminated and the wreckage has not been located.

1.3   Incident

A serious occurrence, other than an accident, associated with the operation of an aircraft, which affects or could affect the safety of operation.

1.4   Air Traffic Incident

A serious occurrence related to the provision of air traffic services, such as:

  1. aircraft proximity;
  2. serious difficulty resulting in a hazard to aircraft caused, for example, by:
    1. faulty procedures;
    2. non-compliance with procedures;
    3. failure of ground facilities.
1.5   Aircraft Proximity (AIRPROX)

A situation in which, in the opinion of the pilot or the ATS personnel, the distance between aircraft, as well as their relative positions and speed, have been such that the safety of the aircraft involved may have been compromised.

SEVERITY CLASSIFICATIONS OF ACCIDENTS (MIL)

The severity of an accident is to be expressed according to:

  1. The level of damage to the aircraft:

    • destroyed;

    • not repairable at unit level;

    • repairable at unit level;

  2. The type and number of injuries:

    • deadly;

    • severe;

    • light.

In Belgian Defence these three levels are called:

3   SEVERITY DEFINITIONS OF AIR TRAFFIC INCIDENTS

3.1   Serious Incident

ICAO Doc 4444 : AIRPROX - Risk of collision (Eurocontrol ESARR2 category A) = The risk classification of aircraft proximity in which serious risk of collision has existed. Critical near collision between aircraft or between aircraft and obstacle(s). Separations lower than half the separation minima (e.g. 2 NM).

ICAO Annex 13 / attachment C:

  • Near collision requiring an avoidance manoeuvre to avoid a collision or an unsafe situation or when an avoidance action would have been appropriate;
  • Controlled flight into terrain only marginally avoided;
  • Aborted take-off on a closed or engaged runway / take-off from a closed or engaged runway with marginal separation from obstacles / landings or attempted landings on a closed or engaged runway / take-off or landing incidents, such as under-shootings, overrunning or running off the runway.
3.2   Major Incident

ICAO Doc 4444: AIRPROX - Safety not assured (Eurocontrol ESARR2 category B) = The risk classification of an aircraft proximity in which the safety of the aircraft may have been compromised:

  • Loss of separation (separation higher than half the separation minima, e.g. 4 NM);
  • Safety margins not respected (higher than half the applicable safety margins);
  • A crew avoidance manoeuvre and/or an ATC instruction which allowed to reduce the risk, without eliminating it, as safety margins were still infringed.
3.3   Significant Incident

ICAO Doc 4444: AIRPROX - No risk of collision (Eurocontrol ESARR2 category C) = The risk classification of an aircraft proximity in which no risk of collision has existed:

  • After visual contact between two aircraft, no avoidance manoeuvre was seen as necessary or was carried out within safety margins;
  • aircraft deviation from ATC clearance (such as flight level, route, heading, runway), unauthorized penetration of airspace, runway incursion with no other traffic in the vicinity (hence, where no avoiding action was necessary).
3.4   Not Determined

ICAO Doc 4444: AIRPROX - Risk not determined (Eurocontrol ESARR2 category D) = The risk classification of an aircraft proximity in which unsufficient information was available to determine the risk involved or inconclusive or conflicting evidence precluded such determination.

3.5   No Safety Effect

Eurocontrol ESARR2: An incident which has no safety significance (category E).

4   USE OF THE AIR TRAFFIC INCIDENT REPORT FORM A/B

4.1   Designation and identification of Air Traffic incidents

Air traffic incidents are designated and identified in reports as follows:

TypeDesignation
Air traffic incidentIncident
as point a (*)AIRPROX
as b1 and b2 (*)Procedure
as b3 (*)Facility
(*) defined in § 1.4 above
4.2   The Air Traffic incident Report Form A

The Air Traffic Incident Report Form A is intended for use:

  1. by a pilot for filing a report on an air traffic incident after arrival or for confirming a report made initially by radio during flight. The form, if available on board, may also be of use in providing a pattern for making the initial report in flight;
  2. by an ATS or air defence unit for recording an air traffic incident report received by radio, TEL or teleprinter. The form may also be used as the format for the text of a message to be transmitted over the AFS network.

An example of this form is added in § 9 below.

4.3   The Air Traffic Incident Report Form B

The Air Traffic Incident Report Form B is intended for ATS personnel or air defence personnel to report an occurence caused by an aircraft or a vehicle, by your own or another ATS unit, an alleged violation of ATS provisions or clearances, equipment/ATC procedures shortcomings, etc.

An example of this form is added in § 9 below.

5   REPORTING PROCEDURES

5.1   Civil
5.1.1   Pilots procedures involved in incident

The following are the procedures to be followed by a pilot who is or has been involved in an incident:

  1. during flight, use the appropriate air/ground frequency for reporting an incident of major significance, particularly if it involves other aircraft, so as to permit the facts to be ascertained immediately;
  2. as promptly as possible after landing, and not later than 7 days after the occurrence, submit a completed Air Traffic Incident Report Form A:
    1. for confirming a report of an incident made initially as in a above, or for making the initial report on such an incident if it had not been possible to report it by radio;
    2. for reporting an incident that did not require immediate notification at the time of occurrence.
5.1.2   Initial report by radio

An initial report made by radio should contain the following information:

  • aircraft identification;
  • type of incident, e.g. aircraft proximity;
  • the incident:
    • 1. a ) and b ) ;
    • 2. a ), b ), c ), d ), n ) ;
    • 3. a ), b ), c ), i );
    • 4. a ), b )
    of the Air Traffic Incident Report Form A;
  • miscellaneous; 1. e ) of the Air Traffic Incident Report Form A.
5.1.2.1   The confirmatory report

The confirmatory report on an incident of major significance initially reported by radio or the initial report on any other incident should be submitted to the Air Accidents and Incidents Investigation Unit of the Ministry of Communications and Infrastructure or to the ARO of the aerodrome of first landing for submission to the Investigation Unit and the appropriate ATS authorities. The pilot should complete the Air Traffic Incident Report Form A, supplementing the details of the initial reports as necessary. Where there is no ARO, the report may be submitted to another ATS Unit.

5.1.2.1.1   Mandatory reporting addresses

Incidents that occurred in Brussels FIR/UIR or are related to civil aircraft registered in Belgium:

Post:

Federal Public Service Mobility and Transport
Air Accidents and Incidents Investigation Unit
Atrium - 6th floor
Rue du Progrès / Vooruitgangstraat 56
1210 Brussels
BELGIUM

TEL: +32 (0) 2 277 44 22 or +32 (0) 2 277 44 33

TEL: +32 (0) 476 76 18 65

FAX: +32 (0) 2 277 45 52 and +32 (0) 2 277 45 53

Email: air-acc-incidents@mobilit.fgov.be and air-por-incidents@mobilit.fgov.be

Note: To make sure that the investigation procedure can start in due time, it is of high importance to inform the Air Accidents and Incidents Investigation Unit as promptly as possible and not later than seven days after the occurrence.

Incidents that occurred in the area of responsibility of Belgocontrol:

Post:

Belgocontrol
Directorate General Operations
Tervuursesteenweg, 303
1820 Steenokkerzeel
BELGIUM

TEL: +32 (2) 206 20 40

FAX: +32 (2) 206 22 21

Telex: 24480 revadi b

Incidents that occurred in the area of responsibility of ANA:

Post:

Administration de la navigation aérienne
Safety Unit
BP 273
L-2012 Luxembourg
LUXEMBOURG

TEL: +352 47 98 24 00 1

FAX: +352 47 98 24 09 3

Email: safety@airport.etat.lu

Incidents that occurred in BRUSSELS UIR above FL 245:

Post:

EUROCONTROL Agency Safety Regulation Unit (ASRU)
Rue de la Fusée / Raketstraat, 96
1130 Brussels
BELGIUM

TEL: +32 (2) 729 90 11

FAX: +32 (2) 729 90 44

Telex: 21173 euroc b

Incidents that occurred in foreign countries and relate to civil aircraft registered in Luxembourg:

Post:

Direction de l'Aviation Civile
BP 283
L-2012 Luxembourg
LUXEMBOURG

TEL: +352 24 77 49 00

FAX: +352 46 77 90

Email: info@dac.public.lu

Military
Pilots procedures involved in incident

The following are the procedures to be followed by a pilot who is or has been involved in an incident:

  1. during flight, use the appropriate air/ground frequency for reporting an incident of major significance, particularly if it involves other aircraft, so as to permit the facts to be ascertained immediately. An AIRPROX report shall always be notified immediately by radio;
  2. as promptly as possible after landing, submit a completed Air Traffic Incident Report Form A:
    1. for confirming a report of an incident made initially as in a above, or for making the initial report on such an incident if it had not been possible to report it by radio;
    2. for reporting an occurrence which did not require immediate notification at the time of occurrence.
Initial report by radio

An initial report made by radio should contain the following information:

  • aircraft identification (own aircraft);
  • type of occurrence, e.g. aircraft proximity;
  • the incident; 1. a ) and b ) ; 2. a ), b ), c ), d ), n ) ; 3. a ), b ) available details: heading, controlling unit and frequency, c ) , i ); 4. a ), b ) of the Air Traffic Incident Report Form A;
  • miscellaneous; 1. e ) of the Air Traffic Incident Report Form A.
Reporting of Air Traffic Occurrences by ATS of AD Units

ATS personnel or air defence personnel shall proceed as follows regarding an occurrence in which he has been involved. As promptly as possible after an occurrence took place, ATS personnel or air defence personnel shall submit a completed Air Traffic Occurrence Notification Report in accordance with ATM instruction 12 and the Air Traffic Occurrence Notification Report form.

Mandatory reporting addresses

Air Traffic Occurrence Notification Reports concerning air traffic occurrences that happened within the Brussels FIR/UIR or in other FIRs to a flight terminating in the Brussels FIR will be addressed to the relevant ATS unit.

Post:

Defence
Air Component
Aviation Safety Directorate/Safety Monitoring Office
Base Charles Roman
1320 Beauvechain
BELGIUM

TEL: +32 (0) 2 44 25457

FAX: +32 (0) 2 44 39355

Email: asd-atm@mil.be

6   PURPOSE OF REPORTING AND HANDLING OF THE FORMS

The purpose of the reporting of air traffic incidents and their investigation is to promote the safety of aircraft and to reduce the risk of mid-air collisions and to reduce the risk of accidents and incidents caused by faulty procedures or non-compliance with procedures, or failure of ground facilities. The sole objective of the safety investigation of an occurrence shall be the prevention of accidents and incidents. It is not the purpose of this activity to apportion blame or liability. Aircrew and Air Traffic Control/Air Defence personnel who are involved in air traffic occurrences, including those who have been reported as being involved, should cooperate in the investigation by providing complete and accurate information. The degree of risk involved, and the severity of the aircraft incidents should be determined in the incident investigation and classified as “serious incident”, “major incident”, “significant incident”, “not determined” or “no safety effect”.

The purpose of the forms is to provide investigatory authorities with as complete information on an air traffic incident as possible and to enable them to report back, with the least possible delay to the pilot or operator concerned, the result of the investigation of the incident and, if appropriate, the remedial action taken for safety improvement. Any information given in order to improve the investigation processes may be used by the receiving party exclusively for safety purposes. Those data may never be used for any other purpose. All the safety related data shall stay confidential.

7   INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE COMPLETION OF THE AIR TRAFFIC INCIDENT REPORT FORM A

The items mentioned below shall be filled in, even if unknown (UNK) or not relevant (N/R).

Item
Aaircraft identification of the aircraft, the ATS unit or air defence unit filing the report.
BAn AIRPROX report should be filed immediately by radio.
C1Date/time UTC and position in bearing and distance from a navigation aid or in LAT/LONG.
C2Information regarding aircraft filing the report, tick as necessary.
C2 c)E.g. FL  350/1013 HPA or 2500 FT QNH / 1007 HPA or 1200 FT/QFE / 998 HPA.
C3Information regarding the other aircraft involved.
C4Passing distance (state units used).
C5Weather conditions.
C6Attach additional papers as required. The diagrams may be used to show aircraft's positions.
D1 f)State name of ATS unit and date/time in UTC.
D1 g)Date and time in UTC.
D2 d)Telephone number of pilot, or operating authority, as appropriate, to facilitate enquiries by investigating authority.
E2Include details of ATS unit such as service provided, RTF frequency, SSR codes assigned and altimeter setting. Use diagram to show the aircraft’s position and attach additional papers as required.

8   INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE COMPLETION OF THE AIR TRAFFIC INCIDENT REPORT FORM B

Use this form to report an occurrence involving an aircraft or vehicle, your own or another ATS unit, an alleged violation of ATS provisions or clearances, equipment and ATC procedures shortcomings.

Fill in this Form as soon as practicable after the occurrence.

Fill in as many boxes (1 to 19) as possible. Fill in relevant information. If not relevant, use “N/R”; or if not known, use “N/K”.

Box 1: Year (YY), Month (MM), Date (DD), hour (hh), minute (mm) of occurrence.

Box 2: Night: as defined nationally, or by ICAO.

Box 3: State location using LAT / LONG, a place name, AD, BRG / DIST from a navigation aid or significant point, etc . . .

Box 4: Use this box only if aircraft affected or involved. Provides for details regarding up to two aircraft involved. Use box 13 for additional aircraft.

Type:Use ICAO aircraft designators
ADEP/ADES Use ICAO location indicators or plain language
Flight level, altitude or height:Specify flight level (FL), altitude (A), height (H) in feet. If metric, add “m”. Insert altimeter setting, if applicable.
Mode C:If level information from the aircraft is available from other sources (e.g. Mode S, ADS, etc...), specify in box 13.
Relevant route segment:

e.g. SID/STAR/ATS route (specify), aerodrome traffic circuit (specify e.g. downwind), landing, take-off, taxiing, initial climb, etc...

Mark flight rules.

Box 5: To assist in retention of relevant RTF and surveillance recordings.

Box 6: Mark the class of ATS airspace (A, B, C, D, E, F, G) within which the occurrence took place.

Box 7: Indicate the type of service provided, e.g. Area/Approach/Aerodrome - Control/Advisory/Information - Procedural/Radar - etc. Use a combination of these for full description of service provided.

Box 8: Use this box only if aircraft affected or involved, or if near-controlled flight into terrain (CFIT) event, to indicate distance aircraft/aircraft or aircraft/terrain.

Box 9: Specify if automated warning system(s) was/were involved (e.g. conflict alert, ACAS). If applicable, specify type and contents of warning and/or alert.

Box 10: Mark “YES” or “NO”, if relevant.

Box 11: Self-explanatory.

Box 12: Mark “YES” or “NO”, if weather was considered relevant to the occurrence. Include details in box 13.

Box 13: Use free text to describe the occurrence, include a diagram if necessary. Include causes and factors believed to be relevant to the occurrence. Suggest changes and improvements, if appropriate (you may wish to indicate that the report reflects your subjective recollection of the facts). Include relevant weather information. If necessary, use box 13 of additional forms. Indicate sequential number of pages and total number of pages.

Box 14: Give your assessment of workload, taking into account complexity and other factors.

Box 15: Indicate the time period since your last rest break.

Box 16: Self-explanatory.

Box 17: Self-explanatory.

Box 18: Specify your duty position and/or responsibility at the time of the occurrence.

Box 19: Self-explanatory.

9   AIR TRAFFIC INCIDENT REPORT FORM A & B