ENR 1.2  Visual Flight Rules

1   CIVIL

Note: Unless explicitly indicated, the rules in this section apply in both Belgium and Luxembourg.

1.1   VMC Visibility and Distance from Clouds Minima (SERA.5001 and SERA.5005a)

Except when operating as a special VFR flight, VFR flights shall be conducted so that the aircraft is flown in conditions of visibility and distance from clouds equal to or greater than those specified in the following table.

Altitude bandAirspace classFlight visibilityDistance from cloud
At and above FL 100A(1) B C D E F G8 KM1 500 M horizontally
1  000 FT vertically
Below FL 100 and above 3 000 FT AMSL, or above 1 000 FT above terrain, whichever is the higherA(1) B C D E F G5 KM1 500 M horizontally
1  000 FT vertically
At and below 3 000 FT AMSL, or 1 000  FT above terrain, whichever is the higher.A(1) B C D E5 KM1 500 M horizontally
1  000 FT vertically
F G5 KM(2)Clear of cloud and with the surface in sight

(1) The VMC minima in Class A airspace are included for guidance to pilots and do not imply acceptance of VFR flights in Class A airspace.

(2) Flight visibilities reduced to not less than 1  500 M are permitted for flights operating:

  • at speeds of 140 KIAS or less to give adequate opportunity to observe other traffic or any obstacles in time to avoid collision; or
  • in circumstances in which the probability of encounters with other traffic would normally be low, e.g. in areas of low volume traffic and for aerial work at low levels.

Helicopters are permitted to operate in less than 1 500 M but not less than 800 M flight visibility, if manoeuvred at a speed that will give adequate opportunity to observe other traffic or any obstacles in time to avoid collision.

Note: for RPAS applicable rules, refer to ENR 1.1, § 1.11.4

1.2   VFR Flights at Aerodromes (SERA.5005b)

Except when a special VFR clearance is obtained from an ATC unit, VFR flights shall not take off or land at an aerodrome within a CTR, or enter the ATZ or aerodrome traffic circuit when the reported meteorological conditions at that aerodrome are below the following minima:

  • the ceiling is less than 1 500 FT; or
  • the ground visibility is less than 5 KM.
1.3   VFR Flights at Night (SERA.5005c)

VFR flights at night may be authorised under the following conditions:

  1. if leaving the vicinity of an aerodrome, a flight plan shall be submitted in accordance with ENR 1.10;
  2. flights shall establish and maintain two way radio communication on the appropriate ATS communication channel, when available;
  3. the VMC visibility and distance from cloud minima as specified in § 1.1 above shall apply, except that:
    • the ceiling shall not be less than 1 500 FT;
    • the reduced flight visibility provisions specified in remark (**) of § 1.1 shall not apply;
    • in airspace classes B, C, D, E, F and G at and below 3 000 FT AMSL or 1 000 FT AGL, whichever is the higher, the pilot shall maintain continuous sight of the surface;
  4. except when necessary for take-off or landing, or except when specifically authorised by the CAA, a VFR flight at night shall be flown at a level that is at least 1 000 FT above the highest obstacle located within 8 KM of the estimated position of the aircraft.

Note 1: In Belgium, VFR flights at night are authorised, except for gliders, DPM, ULM and RPA.

Note 2: In Luxembourg, VFR flights at night may be operated in Luxembourg CTR, Luxembourg TMA (up to FL 95) or class G airspace (up to 2 000 FT AMSL) after approval of the CAA.

1.4   VFR Flight Restrictions
1.4.1   VFR Flights Above FL 195 or at Transonic and Supersonic Speeds (SERA.5005d and SERA.5005e)

Unless authorised by the CAA, VFR flights shall not be operated:

  1. above FL 195;
  2. at transonic and supersonic speeds.

Note 1: Authorisation will not be granted for VFR flights to operate above FL 285.

Note 2: In Belgium, authorisation for VFR flights above FL 195 shall be obtained from the CAA at least five working days in advance and after prior agreement with the responsible ATS authority.

1.4.2   Minimum Heights (SERA.5005f)

Except when necessary for take-off or landing, or except by permission from the CAA, a VFR flight shall not be flown:

  • over the congested areas of cities, towns or settlements, or over an open-air assembly of persons at a height less than 1 000 FT above the highest obstacle within a radius of 600 M from the aircraft;
  • elsewhere, at a height less than 500 FT AGL, or 500 FT above the highest obstacle within a radius of 150 M from the aircraft.
1.5   VFR Cruising Levels (SERA.5005g)

VFR flights in level cruising flight, operated in uncontrolled airspace above 3 000 FT AGL, shall be conducted at a cruising level appropriate to the track as specified in the table of cruising levels in ENR 1.7.

VFR flights operated in controlled airspace shall select cruising levels from those to be used by IFR flights as specified in ENR 1.7, unless instructed otherwise by ATC or as indicated in the AIP.

1.6   Air Traffic Control Service (SERA.5005h)

VFR flights shall comply with the provisions of ENR 1.1, § 1.10 when:

  • operated within class B, C or D airspace;
  • forming part of aerodrome traffic at controlled aerodromes; or
  • operated as special VFR flights.
1.7   Change from VFR to IFR (SERA.5005j)

An aircraft operated in accordance with VFR that wishes to change to compliance with IFR shall:

  • if a flight plan was submitted, communicate the necessary changes to be effected to its current flight plan; or
  • when so required, submit a flight plan to the appropriate ATS unit as soon as practicable and obtain a clearance prior to proceeding IFR when in controlled airspace.
1.8   Special VFR Flights (SERA.5010)

Special VFR flights may be authorised to operate within a CTR, subject to an ATC clearance.

Except when permitted by the CAA for helicopters in special cases such as, but not limited to, police, medical flights, search and rescue operations and fire-fighting flights, the following additional conditions shall be applied:

  1. such special VFR flights may be conducted during day only, unless otherwise permitted by the CAA;
  2. by the pilot:
    1. clear of cloud and with the surface in sight;
    2. the flight visibility is not less than 1 500 M or, for helicopters, not less than 800 M;
    3. fly at speed of 140 KIAS or less to give adequate opportunity to observe other traffic and any obstacles in time to avoid a collision; and
  3. an ATC unit will not issue a special VFR clearance to aircraft to take off or land at and aerodrome within a CTR, or enter the ATZ zone or aerodrome traffic circuit, when the reported meteorological conditions at the aerodrome are below the following minima:
    1. the ground visibility is less than 1 500 M or, for helicopters, less than 800 M
    2. the ceiling is less than 180 M (600 FT).

2   MILITARY

2.1   Minima for Visibility and Distance from Clouds
2.1.1   Military Fixed Wing Aircraft

VFR flights shall be conducted in conditions of visibility and distance from clouds equal to or greater than those specified in the following table, except those mentioned in § 2.1.1.1, § 2.1.1.2 and § 2.1.2 hereafter.

Airspace classCDG
Above 3000 FT AMSL or above 1000 FT AGL, whichever is higherAt and below 3000 FT AMSL or 1000 FT AGL, whichever is higher
Distance from clouds1 500 M horizontally
1 000 FT vertically
Cloud base
≥ 1 500 FT
1 500 M horizontally
1 000 FT vertically
Clear of clouds and
in sight of the surface
Flight visibility≥ 5 KM≥ 5 KMSpeed > 250 KT: ≥ 5 KM
Speed ≤ 250 KT: ≥ 3 KM
2.1.1.1   Special VFR Flights

Within a CTR and on decision of the OC Flying Group, VFR flights by day may be authorised below the established minima when the following weather criteria are met:

Jet aircraft:

  • visibility ≥ 3.7 KM
  • cloud base ≥ 1 000 FT

Conventional aircraft:

  • visibility ≥ 1.5 KM
  • cloud base ≥ 1 000 FT

Note 1: VFR flights executed in these conditions (below normal minima) are called special VFR flights.

Note 2: At EBFS, special VFR departure can be authorised with 3/8 cloud base of 700 FT, if en-route conditions outside the CTR are suitable for VFR flights.

2.1.1.2   VFR Flights at Night

Within a CTR and on decision of the SOF, VFR flights at night may be authorised at a height which shall not exceed 1 500 FT AGL when the following weather criteria are met:.

  • visibility ≥ 5 KM
  • cloud base ≥ 1 500 FT
2.1.2   Military Helicopters
General Visual Meteorological Conditions
Day VFRNight VFRNVA Flight
Visibility≥ 800 M≥ 3 KM≥ 3 KM
CloudsClear of clouds and
in sight of the surface
Cloud base ≥ 500 FT above the flown altitudeCloud base ≥ 200 FT above the MSA of the flown altitude and
in sight of the surface

Note: NVA visibility is the capacity, expressed in KM, to recognize unlighted conspicuous objects and terrain profiles by means of night vision aids. SAR flights on real live and training missions may deviate from these prescribed meteorological conditions in accordance with Belgian 40 Sqn HEL permanent flying orders.

2.2   Minimum safety height

The minimum safety height and the low flying regulation are laid down in ENR 1.1, § 2.7.

2.3   Flight Level

VFR flights above 3 000 FT AGL shall select a level appropriate to their track as specified in ENR 1.7, § 3, except for:

  • security flights
  • when otherwise instructed by the appropriate ATS unit.
2.4   Change from VFR to IFR

When changing from VFR to IFR, pilots shall introduce an IFR flight plan by RTF if part of the flight is to be made within controlled airspace. Proceed in IFR, conforming to the IFR cruising levels (see ENR 1.7), if no part of the flight is to be made within a controlled airspace.The flight will pass from VFR to IFR status upon confirmation by ATC.

2.5   Uncontrolled VFR Flights

Uncontrolled VFR flights are provided with FIS and shall report to Belga Information or Brussels FIC when commencing and ending their mission in the Brussels FIR. These VFR flights shall at all times squawk mode 3/A and mode C.

In order to decrease the risk of collision between military aircraft proceeding VFR outside controlled airspace, the traffic shall be flown one-way between the CTRs as published on chart ENR 6-INDEX.08. Pilots are warned that these regulations are only applicable to military aircraft. Consequently, collision hazard still exists with civil aircraft. These regulations do not apply to helicopters flying below 500 FT AGL.

Note1: The corridor between Liège CTR and EBD37 (direction Waremme) shall in no case be crossed south-westbound below 1 500 FT AMSL. When the cloudbase is below this altitude, this corridor will be avoided via the east and south of EBLG.

Note2: The corridor between Antwerpen CTR and Brussels CTR shall be crossed at 1 000 FT AMSL.

Note3: The corridor between Charleroi CTR and Chièvres CTR shall be crossed at 1 500 FT AMSL.